The gut microbiome represents the most-abundant set of microorganisms in our body; its modulation is of great interest in personalized medicine and nutrition. However, identifying the factors that are associated with this community is not simple, since it is diverse, complex and varies according to the geographic origin and the lifestyles of the populations.
In recent decades scientific evidence has consistently demonstrated the importance of food in the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. Research in food and nutrition seeks not only to understand physiological processes and the nutritional requirements during the different stages of the human life cycle.
Food and nutrition can be both risk factors and protective factors for human health. In recent years, studies have been developed to identify components of foods and other sources that can bring benefits to the body and to describe the mechanisms through which these effects are produced.